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58                         THE FATE OF MAN

set in the spiritual order.   Man should proclaim
not formal liberty, but true freedom for the very
content of human existence.   This is the struggle
for human quality, for human worth, for true
aristocratization.   But this  involves the great
difference between the concepts of freedom held
by Liberalism and by Christianity.   Liberalism
demands a formal liberty and is quite indifferent
to truth or to the content of human life.    Chris-
tianity demands liberty as the very essence of
Christian truth, as the qualitative content of all
human life.    And this distinction is valid for
thought, for cultural creativity, for social and
economic life.   The autonomy of economic life
in capitalism has been the same sort of dehuman-
ization as the autonomy of thought in sceptical
" free-thought."

Formal freedom of thought led to free-thinking
and scepticism. Decline and degeneration lead
to the demand for dictatorship, not only in
economic and political life, but to a dictatorship
in thought and philosophy which is nothing less
than the denial of freedom of the spirit. Taken
by itself, this demand for dictatorship and leader-
ship has its good element: it is akin to the
significance which the one-person idea has in
political life, i.e. men of creative initiative, power-
ful enough to take responsibility upon them-
selves. Without this type of person, reform of